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Neco 2021 obj and theory answers

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INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Five Questions In All Two (2) From Section A. And Three(3) From Section B


Authority can be defined as the legitimate power that a person or a group of persons possess and practice over other people.

(i) Traditional Authority:
People adhere to traditional authority because they are invested in the past and feel obligated to perpetuate it.
(ii) Charismatic Authority:
Followers accept the power of charismatic authority because they are drawn to the leader’s personal qualities.
(iii) Rational-Legal Authority:
In this type of authority, power is vested in a particular rationale, system, or ideology and not necessarily in the person who implements the specifics of that doctrine.
(iv) Expert Authority:
Expert authority is just like the name sounds, an expert on a certain subject area. A great example is when people hire “experts” to testify in court on a certain subject, and they can be experts on everything from racial bias to juror personalities.
(v) Legal-Governing Authority:

This doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a lawyer, although you can be one and have this type of authority. It merely means that you use your official position or status to exert your authority.

(i) lack of ability to sustain sovereign enforcers. This includes stuff like, police, military, judiciary, diplomats, etc. To put it simply, no government can function without them, period.
(ii) Lack of sufficient military force or diplomatic leverage to enforce government sovereignty.
(iii) Over-dependence on foreign powers to enforce their sovereignty, or supplies for a major part of its economy or national defense.
(iv) Uncontrolled corruption, which would cause the government officers to abuse its power to government’s detriment. Notice that this is different from directed/sanctioned bribery, which simply redirects the real power to someone else within the government/nation.
(v) Lack of public trust, either due to cultural, economic recession, corruption, poverty, etc, one that lead to majority of citizens to revolt.

(vi) Invasion and conquest by a foreign nation

(i) The colonial governor appoint, promote and discipline or dismiss public servants in the colony.
(ii) The colonial governor formulate social and economic policies for the colony.
(iii) The colonial governor presided over the meetings of both the legislative and the executive councils.
(iv) The colonial governor ensures that he carries out the day-to-day administration of the colony.
(v) Another function of the colonial Governor was to accent to legislation by the Legislative Council before it could become effective.

(vi) Another function of the colonial Governor was to exercise the royal prerogative of mercy.

(i)The armed forces ruling Nigeria: This was the supreme body which performed legislative functions. This was composed of the service chiefs, top ranking military officers, attorney general with the president as chairman.

(ii)The council of ministers: It was composed of the president, vice president and the ministers some of whom are military officers why some are civilians. The council performed executive functions with the president as chairman.

(iii)The national council of states: It is composed of the head of states, chief of general staff, minister of defence, service chiefs of the army, the navy and the air force ,the inspector General of police attorney General and all military governors. The council was charged with the coordination and the harmonization of the work of the various state governments.

(iv)The judiciary: It remained the same as in the civilian era with Chief Justice as the head. Inclusive are various tribunals which had judges and military officers as members.

(v)The civil service: The secretary to the military government is the head of public services. Director General replaced the permanent secretary by the 1988 civil war.

(vi)The head of states: It was Ibrahim Babangida, (born August 17, 1941, Minna, Nigeria), Nigerian military leader who served as head of state. After Murtala Mohammed became the military head of state in 1975, Babangida joined his Supreme Military Council. He played a significant role in the coup that replaced the civilian government of Shehu Shagari with the military regime led by Muhammad Buhari.

A political party is an organization or group of people bound together by the same political ideals.

(i) They assist the parliament:
Any parliament in any country consists of representatives of the people. The political parties are organized to be the representatives of the people. The electorate chooses the representatives of the parties to be their voice in the parliament.
(ii) Formation of public policies:
Every party in the world fights for the adoption of its political principles. Therefore, if people choose a party to be represented in the parliament, they also choose the party`s principles to be presented in the country.
(iii) Education function:
Political parties should educate the people. The citizens must understand ideas of the political party and the government.
(iv) Stability function:
Political parties unite people in the country. They promote the main principles of patriotism and unity within the country. The political parties unify everyone interests.
(v) Recruitment of leaders:

Another great advantage of any political party is the recruitment of leaders. They look for active citizens who are interested in the fate of their country.

(i) To promote peace and security worldwide.
(ii) To draw Nations closer through sports, musicals, etc.
(iii) Interactions among nations bring about economic advancement especially in the areas of technology.
(iv) It promotes trade among themselves.
(v) To prevent misunderstandings and future conflicts between nations.

(vi) To create new culture that can lead the world to a more platonic place that all people can live together without much culture differences.


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